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Top Spring Framework Interview Questions

    spring interview questions

    Do you have a future interview involving the Spring Framework? Perhaps you've arrived at this website in search of the best Spring Framework interview questions. We will cover the most often requested Spring interview questions and answers in our blog.

    If you go through them, you have a good chance of doing admirably throughout your interview. Before we begin, allow us to provide a short overview of the present market need for Spring Framework.

    Spring accelerates, simplifies, and secures the Java programming language for everyone. Its main objective is speed, but it is also straightforward and productive. As a result, it has grown to be one of the most widely used Java frameworks on the planet. Libraries are adaptable and dependable. It is utilized in a variety of applications, including online commerce, linked vehicles, and other cutting-edge technology.

    Additionally, it boasts about its contributions to industry titans such as Amazon, Google, and Alibaba. Additionally, the Spring community is enormous. It is comprehensive of all age groups and very varied. You'll discover excellent materials and assistance online that will assist you in progressing to the next level.

    Spring Framework is critical if you are a Java programmer. Numerous businesses need programmers to grasp Spring Framework or at the very least some of its components.

    The following are some of the most often asked Spring interview questions and their answers.

    Q.1 What are the various Spring Framework versions available and what are their primary features?

    Three versions are available: Spring 2.5, Spring 3.0, and Spring 4.0.

    Spring 2.5 was the first release to provide annotation support. It debuted in 2007. Spring 3.0 made use of Java5 enhancements and added support for JEE6. Two years later, in 2009, it was released. Spring 4.0 was the primary version that supported Java 8 in its entirety. It debuted in 2013.

    Q.2 Provide an overview or definition of the Spring Framework.

    It is a free and open-source Java development platform. It is used as a support to enterprise-level Java technology. To put it simply, it simplifies Java programming by virtue of its lightweight nature. Developers may use Spring Framework to create apps and deploy them even on machines with limited CPU memory and resources. Additionally, it supports a variety of additional frameworks, including but not limited to Tapestry, JSF, EJB, Hibernate, and Struts.

    Q.3 What are the Spring Framework's advantages?

    • Spring Framework is an open-source project that is not vendor-locked.
    • Due to the layered design it employs, you may utilize just what you really need.
    • Spring Framework makes application testing much simpler by using POJOs.
    • It is compatible with all other Java frameworks, including Spring Frameworks. It imposes no constraints or limits.
    • Spring Framework is a framework that is modular in nature. It is very adaptable.

    Q.4 What are the Spring Framework's different features?

    • Lightweight: Spring Framework is a lightweight framework in terms of its transparency and size.
    • Inversion of control: It refers to the concept of inverting a program's control flow. External sources like as services, frameworks, and other components, rather than the programmer, govern the flow of a program.
    • Aspect-oriented Programming: Spring's aspect-oriented programming model enables the separation of system services and application business logic.
    • Container: It is at the core of Spring Framework. It is the container that generates the objects, associates them, configures them, and manages their whole life cycle, from creation to destruction.
    • MVC Framework: The MVC web application framework included with the Spring Framework is simple to use and highly customizable. You do not need to utilize the Spring MVC Framework.
    • Transaction management: Spring Framework manages transactions through a general abstraction layer. Spring's transaction functionality is also available in non-containerized settings.
    • JDBC Exception Handling: You are not required to explicitly handle any database-related errors. Spring JDBC Framework takes care of it through JDBC exception handling.

    Q.5 How many modules does Spring Framework include? Give them a name.

    There are twenty modules organized into the following categories: Core Container, Web, Data Access/Integration, AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming), Instrumentation, and Test.

    Spring Core Container: As the name implies, this is the Spring Framework's primary container. It is composed of

    • Spring Core
    • Spring Bean
    • Spring Expression Language
    • Spring Context

    Web: This layer enables the development of web applications. It is subdivided into the following modules:

    • Web
    • Web – MVC
    • Web – Socket
    • Web – Portlet

    Data Access/Integration: This layer enables communication with the database. It is subdivided into the following modules:

    • Java DataBase Connectivity – JDBC
    • Object Relational Mapping – ORM
    • Object XML Mappers – OXM
    • Java Messaging Service – JMS
    • Transaction

    Aspect-Oriented Programming: This layer enables developers to decouple code via the use of pointcuts, guidance, and so on.

    Instrumentation: This layer facilitates the development of classloaders and class instrumentation.

    Test: This layer facilitates testing with TestNG and Junit.

    Additionally, you may discover additional erroneous nodes such as:

    Messaging: This module provides help with STOMP. Additionally, it serves as an annotated programming paradigm for routing and processing STOMP messages sent by WebSocket clients.

    Aspects: This module offers AspectJ integration functionality.

    Q.6 Describe the Spring configuration file.

    It is, in essence, an XML file. This file contains all of the information on the classes. Additionally, it explains how these classes are configured and communicate with one another. Because the XML configuration files are comprehensive, they must be kept clean. Otherwise, if your project is large, managing them gets tough.

    Q.7 Describe the components of a Spring application in detail.

    A Spring application is typically composed of the following components:

    • Interface: The interface defines all of the functions.
    • Bean Class: The bean class has properties as well as set and get methods.
    • Spring Aspect: Spring Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP): Provides crosscutting concerns functionality.
    • Bean Configuration File: This file provides information on the classes and how they may be configured.
    • User program: A user program makes use of the function.

    Q.8 Describe the different methods in which the Spring Framework may be used.

    Spring Framework may be utilized in a variety of ways, including the following:

    • Spring Framework may be used to create a fully functional Spring web application.
    • Spring Framework may be utilized as a third-party web framework by using the middle-tier of Spring Framework.
    • The Spring Framework may be utilized remotely.
    • Spring Framework may be used to create Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs) that can be used to encapsulate existing POJOs.

    Q.9 Describe Spring IOC Container?

    Spring Framework is built around the container. It is the container that generates the objects, associates them, configures them, and manages their whole life cycle, from creation to destruction.

    The Spring container manages the components that comprise an application through Dependency Injection. The container determines which objects to create, set, and call by reading the configuration information specified in Java annotations, Java code, or an XML document.

    Q.10 What is a Dependency Injection?

    Rather than building objects, Dependency Injection allows you to just specify how to generate them. In the configuration file, developers must specify which services are needed by a specific component. There is no need to explicitly link services to code components. They are connected through the Spring IoC container.

    Q.11 How many ways is it possible to do Dependency Injection?

    There are three methods to implement Dependency Injection:

    • Constructor Injection
    • Setter Injection
    • Interface Injection

    Spring Framework, on the other hand, uses just constructor and setter injections.

    Q.12 In Spring, how many different types of IOC containers are available?

    Typically, two IOC containers are present, namely:

    • Bean Factory: BeanFactory is a kind of factory class that encapsulates a collection of beans. It instantiates the bean in response to client requests.
    • Application Context: The ApplicationContext interface is built just above the BeanFactory interface: It provides some more capabilities in addition to that given by the BeanFactory.

    Q.13 What are some of the advantages of IoC?

    Several of the advantages of IoC include the following:

    • It will significantly reduce the amount of code required for your application.
    • Your application is much simpler to test since your unit test cases do not need any singletons or JNDI search techniques.
    • It promotes loose coupling with the least effort and invasive method possible.
    • It enables services to be instantiated eagerly and loaded in a lazy manner.

    Q.14 What are Spring Beans?

    Spring Beans are the items that form the application's backbone. The Spring IoC container manages the beans. By controlling it, a Spring IoC container instantiates, configures, wires, and manages them. Beans are generated based on the configuration information provided by users.

    Q.15 Describe Bean Wiring.

    When all the beans are joined within the Spring container, this is called bean wiring. The Spring container must recognize which beans are needed and how dependency injection should be used to connect them.


    We've addressed the majority of the most often asked Spring interview questions. Now you should feel confident while appearing for the interviews.

    Adarsh Kumar Singh is a technology writer with a passion for coding and programming. With years of experience in the technical field, he has established a reputation as a knowledgeable and insightful writer on a range of technical topics.