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Program to find Normal and Trace of a Square Matrix

Few important points to remember:

  • Normal and Trace are only defined for a square matrix.
  • Square Matrix: Matrix in which, the number of rows = number of columns.
  • Normal: Square root of the sum of the squares of each element of the matrix.
  • Trace: Sum of the diagonal elements of a matrix.
  • Diagonal Element: An element having same indices for row and column.

Let's have a simple example to understand these terms better:

Normal and Trace of matrix

Below is a program to find Normal and Trace of Square Matrix.

    to use the sqrt method to find 
    the square root of a number we include
    math.h header file

int main()
    printf("\n\n\t\tStudytonight - Best place to learn\n\n\n");

    int i, j, n, aj[10][10], sum = 0, sum1 = 0, a = 0, normal;

    printf("\nEnter the number of rows (columns) of the matrix: \n\n");
    scanf("%d", &n);

    printf("\nEnter the %d elements of the first matrix: \n\n", n*n);

    for(i = 0; i < n; i++)   // to iterate the rows
        for(j = 0; j < n; j++)   // to iterate the columns
            scanf("%d", &aj[i][j]);
            a = aj[i][j]*aj[i][j];  // finding square of each element
            sum1 += a;  // same as sum1 = sum1 + a
    normal = sqrt((double)sum1);    // typecasting to double value

    printf("\n\nThe normal of the given matrix is: %d", normal);
    for(i = 0; i < n; i++)
        sum = sum + aj[i][i];   // sum of the diagonal elements
    printf("\n\nThe Trace of the given matrix is: %d", sum);
    printf("\n\n\t\t\tCoding is Fun !\n\n\n");
    return 0;


Program to find Normal and Trace of a Square Matrix