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What is the full form of GSM?

Posted in Technology   LAST UPDATED: OCTOBER 7, 2021

    What is the full form of GSM?

    GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication. GSM is an open, digital ratio network operating in over 200 countries. It is a standard developed by European countries.

    What is GSM?

    • GSM or global system for mobile communications. It is a widely-used communication system all around the world. It is a cellular technology for transmitting mobile voice and data over various mobile phones. GSM digitilizes data and then sends it via a channel between two different streams of mobile data, each in its particular time slot.
    • It covers mostly all of Europe and it is now growing in western Asia and America as well. It is not only limited to voice calls but is also used for sending text messages and data computing. A user can also connect his GSM-enabled phone to his laptop to send and receive text and emails, browse the internet, check security, etc.

    When was GSM technology introduced?

    The GSM originated from a cell-based radio mobile system at the bell laboratories in the early 1970s. The main aim was to create a steady international standard of wireless mobile communication. The first system was started in Finland in 1991.

    What are the advantages of GSM technology?

    • GSM is operational all around the world and therefore, there is a huge variety in the no. of phones that operate on GSM. Therefore consumers have more options and variety in choosing a phone according to their desires and also users are not limited to purchasing a phone in their own country.
    • GSM is operational in more than 200 countries therefore it is quite simple to use your GSM phone in most countries
    • As GSM is the same network used worldwide there is no roaming cost for users on international calls. However, most service providers still levy a service fee on most international calls.
    • GSM is one of the oldest and most stable networks all around the world.

    What are the disadvantages of GSM technology?

    • The greatest disadvantage of GSM technology is that several users use the same bandwidth at the same time. Therefore, The transmission between users can face interference. In order to avoid such interferences faster and efficient technologies such as 3G have been added to different types of GSM networks.
    • GSM technology also interferes with devices like hearing aids. This interference is caused by the fact that GSM works on pulse transmission technology. Due to this technology airplanes and hospitals prevent the use of GSM mobile phones near them as the technology can interface with their equipment.
    • GSM technology is not 100% secure as researchers have suggested that the algorithm used can be breached.

    What are the frequencies on which GSM operates?

    The various frequencies are:

    1. 900 MHZ: It was used by the original GSM system

    2. 1800MHZ: It was added to support the growing no. of users.

    3. 1900: It is majorly only used in the USA

    What are the functions provided when a GSM phone is connected to a computer?

    The following functions are provided:

    • GSM provides the strongest wireless data connectivity to access the internet.
    • A user can send and receive faxes anywhere around the world where GSM services are available.
    • GSM provides secure access to cooperate LAN. It encrypts data transmission and provides added security to very important emails

    What is the architecture of GSM?

    The main elements in the GSM architecture are:

    • Network and switching subsystem(NSS)
    • Base station subsystem(BSS)
    • The mobile station(MS)
    • Operation and support subsystem(0SS)

    How does a GSM work?

    It uses a combination of time division multiple access and frequency driven multiple access.

    Frequency division multiple access:

    It divides a frequency band into multiple sub-bands so that each sub-band is allotted to one subscriber.

    Time-division multiple access:

    It involves allocating the same frequency channel to different subscribers by dividing frequency bands into many time slots.

    What are the functions of the components of GSM?

    1. Mobile Station(MS)

    MS or mobile station is basically a mobile phone.

    2. Base Transreciever System

    It ensures radio connectivity with MS.

    3. Base station controller

    Its main job is to allocated time slots BTS and MS.

    4. Home location register

    It is a database that contains information of all mobile subscribers of the mobile network.

    5. Visitor location register

    It contains a copy of all the information in the HRL which is temporarily stored in it.

    6. Equipment identity register

    It is a database containing information about the list of valid equipment in the network.

    7. Authentication Centre

    It executes authentication of the subscriber.


    The above article covers everything related to GSM technology. It tells us everything about GSM such as what is the full form of GSM and what it is when was GSM technology introduced, advantages and disadvantages of GSM, frequencies on which GSM operates, functions provided by GSM, the architecture of GSM, and various functions of the components of GSM.

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    Published by: anishom9r9