URL stands for Uniform resource locator. It is a specified address of a webpage or web file on the internet. When used with HTTP it is known as the web address. A URL consists of a string of different letters that are used to access data from the internet. URL is a part of a uniform resource identifier (URI).
A URL looks like this http://www.studytonight.com/, where www.studytonight.com is also known as the domain name.
Every URL comprises several parts, and the way yours are built have a variety of effects on your site's security and search engine optimization
A URL is made up of domain name, and the path of the resource on the web server which you want to access.
A URL includes the following:
Scheme name or protocol
A colon, two slashes (
A host normally called a domain name but it can be a literal IP address too.
A colon, followed by a port number (optional).
The full path of the resource
1. The protocol:
The first part of a web address http:// or https:// probably very easy to overlook but plays an important role. The protocol helps your browser to communicate with the server of a website, to send and retrieve information. The protocol helps the URL to work in the first place.
However, nowadays most websites are moving towards using hypertext text protocol secure (HTTPS). While this protocol does essentially the same thing as HTTP, it's a much more secure option and encrypts data moving between the browser and the server of the website. That's why most browsers give it a green padlock.
2. The domain name:
The domain name is the name of the website on the web address. It is the most identifiable part of a web address. The domain name will take you straight to the home page of the website if nothing else is added to the end of it.
The domain name comprises two other components, first the name of the website in question and then a top-level domain(TLD). The TLD refers to .com, .org, .info, etc. It comes at the end of the domain name.
3. The Path:
In simple terms, it is the way leading to a web page. The words after TLD are the path. Its role is to direct a browser to a specific page on the website. It is also sometimes known as URL slug
The last part of a web address is usually used to define a path.
Also Read: What is the full form of Google
Any URL can be typed inside the browser address bar to reach the source behind it. The HTML language makes extensive use of URLs.
An absolute URL consists of everything needed on the URL web browser to locate the webserver. It consists of everything from the protocol(HTTPS) to the domain name(www.example.com). An example of an absolute URL is <a href= http://www.example.com/xyz.html>
On the other hand, the relative URL does not contain the complete web address but only the location put after the domain name. It can only link pages on the same domain. It presumes the link you add is part of the same root domain. For eg. <a href="/xyz.html">
The URL was coined in 1994 by Tim Berners Lee. The ARPANET was introduced in the late 1960s. It was the first computer which had internet on it. Moving files and documents became possible between computers through the network. Unfortunately, at that time any one of a no. of different protocols was required to retrieve the documents.
A unifying principle was needed that would allow files and documents to be easily linked, transferred, and retrieved on demand
In the early 1990s, the web was built on top of the internet. It made it far more convenient to access and link documents to one another. There were three building blocks that made this possible the HTTP protocol, HTML, and the URL. HTTP was a method used for sending and receiving documents and the URL was used to show where the documents were located and how documents should be linked.
URLs are more complex than they seem and this article will make you familiar with the topic as it covers everything you need to understand about an URL. It covers everything from what is the full form, features of the URL, what are its main parts, the difference between absolute and relative URL, and also how it was invented.