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Spring Security HTTP Basic Authentication

In this topic, we will learn to use HTTP basic authentication in the Spring application. Spring Security provides HTTP basic authentication to authenticate the user at the client-side and send the user credentials with the request header to the server. The server receives these credentials, extract them from the header, and map them with the existing record to validate the user.

The BasicAuthenticationFilter handles the request and check whether the request contains an authentication header or not. The httpBasic() method enables the Basic HTTP security in our application. Let's create a project and implements HTTP security.

Time for an Example

Now, let's understand by example. We created a maven-based Spring Security project that contains the following files.

// AppConfig.java

This is our application configuration file that implements WebMvcConfugurer interface to make this MVC application and created a method viewResolver to map our views files(JSP).

The @EnableWebMvc annotation is used to make our application a web application with an MVC pattern.

The @Configuration annotation is used to declare this class as a configuration class and the @ComponentScan annotation is used to scan the component class of our application.

package com.studytonight;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.ViewResolver;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.EnableWebMvc;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurer;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver;

@EnableWebMvc
@Configuration
@ComponentScan("com.studytonight.controller")
public class AppConfig implements WebMvcConfigurer{
	@Bean
	public ViewResolver viewResolver() {
		InternalResourceViewResolver irvr = new InternalResourceViewResolver();
		irvr.setPrefix("WEB-INF/views/");
		irvr.setSuffix(".jsp");
		irvr.setOrder(0);
		return irvr;
	}
}

// MainApp.java

This class initializes our web application and creates ServletContext by using that we register our AppConfig class(above file).

package com.studytonight;

import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.ServletRegistration;
import org.springframework.web.WebApplicationInitializer;
import org.springframework.web.context.support.AnnotationConfigWebApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet;
public class MainApp implements WebApplicationInitializer {

	@Override
	public void onStartup(ServletContext servletContext) throws ServletException {
		System.out.println("started");
		AnnotationConfigWebApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigWebApplicationContext();
		context.register(AppConfig.class);
		context.setServletContext(servletContext);
		ServletRegistration.Dynamic servlet = servletContext.addServlet("dispatcher", new DispatcherServlet(context));
		servlet.setLoadOnStartup(1);
		servlet.addMapping("/");
		context.close();	
	}
}

// SecurityAppInitializer.java

This is the Security initializer class that extends AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer and we passed our SecurityConfig class so that it can read security configurations.

package com.studytonight;

import org.springframework.security.web.context.AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer;
public class SecurityAppInitializer  extends AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer {

	public SecurityAppInitializer() {
		super(SecurityConfig.class);
	}
}

// SecurityConfig.java

This is our security configuration file that extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter class and provides several methods such as configure() to configure the security. Spring Security provides AuthenticationManagerBuilder class that works as an Authentication Manager and provides several methods to authenticate the user. Here, we are using inMemoryAuthentication concept that allows mapping hard-coded user values.

We used HttpSecurity class to configure the basic authentication in our application. The httpBasic() method is used to enable the feature to authenticate the user during HTTP request.

package com.studytonight;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User.UserBuilder;

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity	
public class SecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter{

	@Override
	protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {

		UserBuilder users = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder();		
		auth.inMemoryAuthentication()
		.withUser(users.username("studytonight").password("abc123").roles("GUEST"))
		.withUser(users.username("pro-studytonight").password("abc123").roles("REGISTERED"));
	}

	@Autowired
	protected void configure(HttpSecurity hs) throws Exception {
		 hs.csrf().disable()
         .authorizeRequests().anyRequest().authenticated()
         .and().httpBasic();
	}
}

// UserController.java

This is our controller class that works as a user request handler and maps user requests with the resources and returns responses accordingly. We created the login() method to render the login page and the home() method to show the index.jsp page and course() method to display course.jsp page.

package com.studytonight.controller;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;

@Controller
public class UserController {
	
	@GetMapping("/")  
	public String home() {
		return "index";
	}

	@GetMapping("/java-course")
	public String course() {
		return "course";
	}
}

View Files

These are views files of our project that displayed to the browser. See the code.

// course.jsp

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
	pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Course Page</title>
</head>
<body>
	<h2>List of Courses</h2>
	<ul>
		<li>Java</li>
		<li>Python</li>
		<li>C++</li>
		<li>Linux</li>
	</ul>
</body>
</html>

// index.jsp

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
	pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
	<%@ taglib prefix="form" uri="http://www.springframework.org/tags/form"%>
	<%@ taglib prefix="security" uri="http://www.springframework.org/security/tags"%>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Home Page</title>
</head>
<body>
	<h2>Welcome to Studytonight!</h2>
	<h3>
		<a href="java-course">Study Java</a>
	</h3>
</body>
</html>

// pom.xml

This file contains all the dependencies of this project such as spring jars, servlet jars, etc. Put these dependencies into your project to run the application.

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>com.studytonight</groupId>
	<artifactId>springwithsecurity</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>war</packaging>
	<properties>
		<spring.version>5.2.8.RELEASE</spring.version>
	</properties>
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.servlet/servlet-api -->
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.servlet/javax.servlet-api -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
			<version>4.0.1</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/jstl/jstl -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>jstl</groupId>
			<artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
			<version>1.2</version>
		</dependency>



		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.servlet.jsp/javax.servlet.jsp-api -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet.jsp</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.servlet.jsp-api</artifactId>
			<version>2.3.3</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.servlet.jsp.jstl/jstl-api -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet.jsp.jstl</groupId>
			<artifactId>jstl-api</artifactId>
			<version>1.2</version>
		</dependency>

		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.xml.bind/jaxb-api -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.xml.bind</groupId>
			<artifactId>jaxb-api</artifactId>
			<version>2.3.0</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.springframework.security/spring-security-web -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-security-web</artifactId>
			<version>5.4.2</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.springframework.security/spring-security-config -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-security-config</artifactId>
			<version>5.4.2</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.springframework.security/spring-security-taglibs -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-security-taglibs</artifactId>
			<version>5.4.1</version>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>
	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.2.3</version>
				<configuration>
					<warSourceDirectory>WebContent</warSourceDirectory>
				</configuration>
			</plugin>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
				<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.5.1</version>
				<configuration>
					<source>11</source>
					<target>11</target>
				</configuration>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>
</project>

Run the Application

After successfully completing the project and adding the dependencies run the application and you will get the output as below.

At the time of loading the page, it asks for the user credentials. It is an auto-generated input box that is created by Spring Security to validate the user when the user makes an HTTP request. The credentials entered here will be appended with the request header and validate at the server-side.

Provide Correct Username and Password

Home page

Now, you are successfully logged in to the application. This is our index.jsp file renders as a home page to the browser.