COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

Memory Mapping and Concept of Virtual Memory

The transformation of data from main memory to cache memory is called mapping. There are 3 main types of mapping:

  • Associative Mapping
  • Direct Mapping
  • Set Associative Mapping

Associative Mapping

The associative memory stores both address and data. The address value of 15 bits is 5 digit octal numbers and data is of 12 bits word in 4 digit octal number. A CPU address of 15 bits is placed in argument register and the associative memory is searched for matching address.

Mapping and Concept of Virtual Memory


Direct Mapping

The CPU address of 15 bits is divided into 2 fields. In this the 9 least significant bits constitute the index field and the remaining 6 bits constitute the tag field. The number of bits in index field is equal to the number of address bits required to access cache memory.

Mapping and Concept of Virtual Memory


Set Associative Mapping

The disadvantage of direct mapping is that two words with same index address can't reside in cache memory at the same time. This problem can be overcome by set associative mapping.

In this we can store two or more words of memory under the same index address. Each data word is stored together with its tag and this forms a set.

Mapping and Concept of Virtual Memory


Replacement Algorithms

Data is continuously replaced with new data in the cache memory using replacement algorithms. Following are the 2 replacement algorithms used:

  • FIFO - First in First out. Oldest item is replaced with the latest item.
  • LRU - Least Recently Used. Item which is least recently used by CPU is removed.

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is the separation of logical memory from physical memory. This separation provides large virtual memory for programmers when only small physical memory is available.

Virtual memory is used to give programmers the illusion that they have a very large memory even though the computer has a small main memory. It makes the task of programming easier because the programmer no longer needs to worry about the amount of physical memory available.

Mapping and Concept of Virtual Memory