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Transport Layer - OSI Model

The basic function of the Transport layer is to accept data from the layer above, split it up into smaller units, pass these data units to the Network layer, and ensure that all the pieces arrive correctly at the other end.

Furthermore, all this must be done efficiently and in a way that isolates the upper layers from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology.

The Transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the Session layer, and, ultimately, to the users of the network. The most popular type of transport connection is an error-free point-to-point channel that delivers messages or bytes in the order in which they were sent.

The Transport layer is a true end-to-end layer, all the way from the source to the destination. In other words, a program on the source machine carries on a conversation with a similar program on the destination machine, using the message headers and control messages.

Functions of Transport Layer

  1. Service Point Addressing: Transport Layer header includes service point address which is port address. This layer gets the message to the correct process on the computer unlike Network Layer, which gets each packet to the correct computer.
  2. Segmentation and Reassembling: A message is divided into segments; each segment contains sequence number, which enables this layer in reassembling the message. Message is reassembled correctly upon arrival at the destination and replaces packets which were lost in transmission.
  3. Connection Control: It includes 2 types:
    • Connectionless Transport Layer : Each segment is considered as an independent packet and delivered to the transport layer at the destination machine.
    • Connection Oriented Transport Layer : Before delivering packets, connection is made with transport layer at the destination machine.
  4. Flow Control: In this layer, flow control is performed end to end.
  5. Error Control: Error Control is performed end to end in this layer to ensure that the complete message arrives at the receiving transport layer without any error. Error Correction is done through retransmission.

Transport Layer in ISO-OSI Model

Design Issues with Transport Layer

  • Accepting data from Session layer, split it into segments and send to the network layer.
  • Ensure correct delivery of data with efficiency.
  • Isolate upper layers from the technological changes.
  • Error control and flow control.